What Role Did Jubal A. Early Play In Creating and Propagating The Lost Cause Myth?

Jubal A. Early was a former Confederate general, who came up with what is known as the myth of the lost cause. The myth of the lost cause is an explanation for the confederate defeat in the years after the Civil War. [1]  Early wanted to explain why the Confederacy had fought in the war, and the good things that came out of it. For explain, Early is one of the first people to really glorify Robert E. Lee’s role as general in chief. Early with other ex confederates created a collection of writings that portrayed a heroic image of Lee. [2] Early started glorying the Confederacy before the war was even over. He did this because he was unsure of the fate of the Confederacy  and wanted it to be persevered. [3] One of the reason’s why Early glorified Lee so much is because of his respect for Lee. Lee really appreciated Early and worked very well with him. [4] Early felt like the best way to explain the lost cause was through writings. One of his most famous collaborations is The Southern Historical Society Papers. This was a paper written by former soldiers and generals telling stories about old battles. [5] These papers were a way for  former confederates to relive there memories, and remember why they were fighting in the first place. The lost cause myth is a positive out look on loosing the war.

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Jubal A. Early 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Gallagher, Jubal A. Early, 200.
  2. Gallagher, Jubal A. Early, 200.
  3. Gallagher, Jubal A. Early, 201.
  4. Gallagher, Jubal A. Early, 203.
  5. Gallagher, Jubal A. Early, 206.

How Did The Conservative Basis of Reconstruction Fundamentally Limit Its Achievements?

Reconstruction was a period of time in which the United States was rebuilding itself after the Civil War. Republicans played a huge role in reconstruction, because of the fact that they made up the majority party in both the house and senate. In the United States republicans understood that the government needed to extend its powers during the war.[1]  Although, the president kept expanding his power doing the war. Which congress did not approve of. [2] However, during reconstruction the government continued to expand its powers. Republicans thought that the governments powers would diminish after the war. [3] For example, congress was over stepping its powers when it came to states rights. Republicans believed that after the war states should be able to govern themselves. But congress agreed to let states run themselves, if they did it the way congress approved they could. [4]  One of the platforms for conservatives is citizens and state rights. Conservatives did not feel that congress was doing what it could to protect citizens and state rights. [5] Reconstruction was a hard period of time in histroy, due to the politics of it. No one party could agree on what the right way to go about reconstruction was.

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Congressional meeting during reconstruction 

 

  1. Les Benedict, Preserving the Constitution, 68.
  2. Les Benedict, Preserving the Constitution, 69
  3. Les Benedict, Preserving the Constitution, 70
  4. Les Benedict, Preserving the Constitution, 71
  5. Les Benedict, Preserving the Constitution, 74.

How Did Lincoln Succeed As Commander In Chief and How Did Davis Fail?

Lincoln succeeded as commander in chief because, he was able to focus on what needed to be done to take down the Confederacy. Due to the fact that Lincoln had a very limited military background; he was always reading up on military tactics. Lincolns new found military knowledge became evident in a letter to Joseph Hooker, when Hooker wanted to follow Lee. Lincoln realized that it was not a smart move, and told Hooker not to shadow Lee. [1] Another way Lincoln successful, was by using African Americans to his advantage. Lincoln knew using them would be a way to build up his army. [2] Lincoln also went against what congress said sometimes. For example, when congress wanted to negotiate peace Lincoln knew it would fail.[3]   Lincoln had a clear plan for winning the war, which made him a successful president.

Davis on the other hand, was not as successful has Lincoln at being commander in chief. For example, Davis did not really seem like he wanted to be president. This was apparent in a letter to General J.E. Johnston; rather than praising him for his work Davis seemed to tell him how he should fight.[4]  Davis seemed like he would rather be fighting in the war. Another reason why Davis did not succeed was because he did not have enough manpower and material. For example, in a letter to Lee, Davis was very frazzled about finding him manpower.  [5] Davis was very unorganized with both congress and his troops. At one point he even would consider having blacks fight for him, going against his word. [6] Both Davis and Lincoln would have there strengths and weakness but Lincoln was able to get more support from the people. Which would in turn make him a very successful president.

 

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Lincoln v. Davis 
  1. Gienapp, The Fiery Trial, 157.
  2. Gienapp, The Fiery Trial, 169.
  3. Gienapp, The Fiery Trial, 201.
  4. Cooper, The Essential Writings, 310.
  5. Cooper, The Essential Writings, 314.
  6. Cooper, The Essential Writings, 362.

Enslaved Women And Freedom

The Civil War brought about freedom for all enslaved women, and would change their lives forever. During the war, slaves were treated worse than before the war. They were forced to work harder and given less food and clothing. [1] As a result of this many enslaved women desired freedom. The main reason why enslaved women wanted their freedom, is because  they did not want to be owned, due to being treated badly. For example, once the war got closer white women took their stress out on slaves; which would end up to them beating slaves with no explanation.[2] Emancipation made white women loose a sense of identity but it gave black women a sense of pride. Freedom for black women was a chance for them to explore the meaning of womanhood, and find a place in the world.[3] Emancipation made former enslaved women hopeful about the future. Many black women pursued citizenship, land ownership, wages for work, and a right to a private life.[4] However, it was very hard for black women to fit into society. Black women found it hard to find jobs or be accepted by society like they had desired. Many former enslaved women went to work for their former white owners, in exchange that their white masters recognize their freedom.[5] While enslaved women did get the freedom they desired, it was not the freedom they had dreamed of. Women were still treated as if they were still slaves.

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[1] Glymph, Out of the House, 113.

[2] Glymph, Out of the House, 116.

[3] Glymph, Out of the House, 134.

[4] Glymph, Out of the House, 135.

[5] Glymph, Out of the House, 165.

Emancipation and Hard War

Once the idea of emancipation came about it changed the way the Union fought the war. The policy that the Union used was hard war; which is war amid at the destruction of the enemy economic resources.[1] Slave labor was a huge advantage for the South because it allowed more southern men to fight in the army, without destroying the southern economy. One of the first steps towards emancipation was the First Confiscation Act. The First Confiscation Act declared the forfeiture of slaves that were used directly in the confederate war effort.[2] This a hard war policy because it took away labor from the Confederacy. Another use of hard war tact’s was The Militia Act of 1862; which allowed the president to organize blacks and use them for any military or naval purpose he saw fit.[3] Not only was this taking away labor from the South, it helped to increase the Union Army. The idea of hard war for the Union was once they broke down the confederate economic infrastructure they would be able to win the war.[4] Once Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation the U.S. used former slaves in any way they saw fit. Ex slaves would be both military laborers and soldiers. [5] While emancipation was a useful hard war tactic it did not end the war in the way the Union had hoped.

 

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Emancipation and Hard War 

 

[1] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 5.

[2] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 123.

[3] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 134.

[4] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 4.

[5] Grimsley,  Hard Hand of War, 140.

Evolution of Lincoln And Davis

From the start of the war to the middle of the war both Lincoln and Davis’s war strategies evolved. Unlike Lincoln, Davis had more military experience because of his education from West Point. On November 18, 1861, Davis gave a message to the Confederate Congress in which he praised the Confederacy for there early victories in the war. However, he acknowledged that the Union did have more resources, supplies, and a larger army than the Confederacy.[1] Lincoln’s lack of military experience did affect the Union at the start of the war. In response to the Confederate victories at the start of the war Lincoln came up with better military strategies for example, he called for more volunteer forces, a more effect blockade, and better training for soldiers. [2]. At the start of the war Davis was fighting the war for states rights. As the war progressed Davis fought for slavery, which was justified because the Constitution gave people the right to property people which allowed them to have slaves; because slaves are property[3]. Lincoln first fought the war to preserve the United States, and then to abolish slavery. According to Lincoln slavery was not legal because Slaves are people, and the constitution states that all men are created equal[4].

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Lincoln and Davis 

[1] Davis, Jefferson, and William J. Cooper. Jefferson Davis: The Essential Writings. New York: Modern Library, 2003, pg. 217-222.

[2] Lincoln, Abraham, and William E. Gienapp. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pg. 107-108.

[3] Davis, Jefferson, and William J. Cooper. Jefferson Davis: The Essential Writings. New York: Modern Library, 2003, pg. 153-156.

[4] Lincoln, Abraham, and William E. Gienapp. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pg. 39-42.

Deep Contingency And Secession

Deep contingency is the idea of social life being contingent and how it can lead to certain events, or social change [1]. The main idea of deep contingency is how people feel personally about an issue. During the 1860’s the issue was slavery and whether or not it should be allowed, in the United States. Both the North and the South had distorted views of why the other side was fighting the war. The North was fighting to keep the integrity of the United States, while the South was fighting for a new nation built on slavery.[2] One the reasons secession happened was because the South had a higher percentage of slaves, and they needed the slaves to work the land [3]. Another way deep contingency lead to secession was politics. By the 1850’s the two party system broke over the views and ideas of slavery [4]. During the 1850’s American’s were starting to become more self-conscious, which made them more aware of what was going on. Political leaders couldn’t say anything, without the people thinking it was about slavery [5]. In conclusion deep contingency is the idea that slavery caused the United States to be divided, which lead to secession and eventually the Civil War.

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Union and Confederate Soliders 

 

[1] Ayers, Edward L. What Caused the Civil War?: Reflections on the South and Southern History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006, pg. 135.

[2] Ibid 134.

[3] Ibid 135.

[4] Ibid 137.

[5] Ibid 141.