Emancipation and Hard War

Once the idea of emancipation came about it changed the way the Union fought the war. The policy that the Union used was hard war; which is war amid at the destruction of the enemy economic resources.[1] Slave labor was a huge advantage for the South because it allowed more southern men to fight in the army, without destroying the southern economy. One of the first steps towards emancipation was the First Confiscation Act. The First Confiscation Act declared the forfeiture of slaves that were used directly in the confederate war effort.[2] This a hard war policy because it took away labor from the Confederacy. Another use of hard war tact’s was The Militia Act of 1862; which allowed the president to organize blacks and use them for any military or naval purpose he saw fit.[3] Not only was this taking away labor from the South, it helped to increase the Union Army. The idea of hard war for the Union was once they broke down the confederate economic infrastructure they would be able to win the war.[4] Once Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation the U.S. used former slaves in any way they saw fit. Ex slaves would be both military laborers and soldiers. [5] While emancipation was a useful hard war tactic it did not end the war in the way the Union had hoped.

 

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Emancipation and Hard War 

 

[1] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 5.

[2] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 123.

[3] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 134.

[4] Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 4.

[5] Grimsley,  Hard Hand of War, 140.

Evolution of Lincoln And Davis

From the start of the war to the middle of the war both Lincoln and Davis’s war strategies evolved. Unlike Lincoln, Davis had more military experience because of his education from West Point. On November 18, 1861, Davis gave a message to the Confederate Congress in which he praised the Confederacy for there early victories in the war. However, he acknowledged that the Union did have more resources, supplies, and a larger army than the Confederacy.[1] Lincoln’s lack of military experience did affect the Union at the start of the war. In response to the Confederate victories at the start of the war Lincoln came up with better military strategies for example, he called for more volunteer forces, a more effect blockade, and better training for soldiers. [2]. At the start of the war Davis was fighting the war for states rights. As the war progressed Davis fought for slavery, which was justified because the Constitution gave people the right to property people which allowed them to have slaves; because slaves are property[3]. Lincoln first fought the war to preserve the United States, and then to abolish slavery. According to Lincoln slavery was not legal because Slaves are people, and the constitution states that all men are created equal[4].

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Lincoln and Davis 

[1] Davis, Jefferson, and William J. Cooper. Jefferson Davis: The Essential Writings. New York: Modern Library, 2003, pg. 217-222.

[2] Lincoln, Abraham, and William E. Gienapp. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pg. 107-108.

[3] Davis, Jefferson, and William J. Cooper. Jefferson Davis: The Essential Writings. New York: Modern Library, 2003, pg. 153-156.

[4] Lincoln, Abraham, and William E. Gienapp. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pg. 39-42.